Is the 100-mile diet the secret to happiness?

Cover image taken in Bamfield, British Columbia (summer of 2015)

Smith A, MacKinnon JB. 2007. The 100-Mile Diet. Toronto: Vintage Canada. p 65 – 266.

Once again I am reminded of how simple, but delicious the food from the 100-mile diet can be. Gooseberry oysters (p 64), braised dandelion greens with morels (p 106), poached salmon with white cream sauce (p 128), pumpkin soup (p 149) and maple walnut crepes (p 192). Should I go on?

The food may be simple, but from personal experience I know the challenge that the 100-mile diet presents certainly is not easy to accomplish. Finding or sourcing local food can be very complex depending on where you live and the time of year. For Kamloops, British Columbia in the winter and early spring, the local produce consists mainly of root vegetables (potatoes, carrots, and beets) and a squash. The local stew I chose to make consisted of all these ingredients.

For Alisa and James, this was not only a challenge for their diet and for their resourcefulness, but also for their 14-year relationship. I liked Alisa’s writing much more because she talks about her relationship with James on a more personal level. Alisa shares her growing relationship issues with James and admits that they have “both fell back into the rut” (p 153). Her year with James had become strained and the couple fought often. At one point Alisa even thought they were “on the brink of a breakup” (p 168).

My sympathy for James increased when he went to his mothers house in Kamloops and Alisa “couldn’t seem to decide whether she would miss [him] or not” (p 173). Maybe it’s because he is finally expressing his feelings, but I think I’m finally starting to like James because I can relate to him on many levels. I understand what it’s like to be in a relationship with someone who doesn’t know what they want and what effect that can have on your feelings and actions. Furthermore, I too do not have fond memories of my adolescence spent in Kamloops (p 174). This place is a trap and I cannot wait to escape.

My favorite part of their year is when the couple finally manages to find a wheat farmer (p 184). Could you go 7 months without bread? I certainly could not. You can feel their excitement as their challenge turned into a mission to get the flour. Their conversation with each other was comical as they talked about sending in the team (p 189) and with subject lines like “the eagle has landed” (p 190). Mission success, they got the flour. It makes sense that a sourdough bread recipe introduced this chapter.

I was impressed to hear that Alisa “craved 100-mile meals” (p 201) because the food made her feel alive and most important, happy. After this realization, Alisa also realized how happy she was with James. She decided to make him an apology soup of kelp and salmon, very similar to soup I made many times this summer. Oddly enough the soup I made was made and sourced in the same location that Alisa sourced her kelp from, Bamfield British Columbia. This was another part I enjoyed reading because it brought back fond memories of my summer of intertidal research, where I learned about the flora and fauna of the intertidal community, including the kelp. In fact, I lived with 4 kelp and seaweed biologists over my 4 months spent in Bamfield. I also enjoyed reading about their memories in Bamfield at the end of the book (p 256). This beautiful place would be the perfect location to practice the 100-mile diet due to its great diversity of local natural food sources (e.g. salmon, intertidal invertebrates, seaweeds, kelps, berries, etc.). The only thing that may impede the challenge at this location may be the fact that it is located right on the ocean on the West coast of Vancouver Island. Bamfield will always hold a special spot in my heart. The following slideshow of personal pictures only illustrates some of the beautiful wildlife that Bamfield has to offer.

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At the end of their year on the 100-mile diet, I am surprised at how much Alisa and James have learned and how resourceful they have become. They can now make “sauerkraut, pickles, crackers, jelly” (p 215), as well as preserve food in multiple ways (e.g. canning tomatoes, freezing corn, or smoking salmon). Their whole lifestyle has changed to revolve around this diet and by the end of it their “diet no longer felt ‘different’” (p 219) and it became their “new normal” (p 219). After a year of living like this, I would probably feel weird to change back to my old lifestyle.

In my mind, the most important result of their 100-mile diet was how the couple learned to appreciate and be “awestruck by living things” (p 224). Appreciating the living things in the world around us is the only way the increasing human population is going to continue to exist into the distant future. The 100-mile diet may seem impossible at fist glance, but with willingness and perseverance it can be accomplished.

Imagine how much the world would change if everyone lived by the rules of the 100-mile diet (included in the special features at the back of the book). People may just become more interconnected with the world around them.

What type of meat do you eat? Depressed, tailless bacon machines?

Cover image retrieved from URL:

Pollan M. 2006. The Omnivores Dilemma. The Penguin Press, New York (NY). p 186-273.

Would you rather eat pastured food or industrial food? This is a loaded question because it requires you to consider if you would rather eat:

  • Cows fed on their naturally evolved diet of grass or those who are force fed corn and antibiotics?
  • Chickens who spend their life outside on the grass or those that are kept in cages in their own filth?
  • A happy pig with its tail or a depressed, tailless bacon machine?
  • An animal that gets to fulfill its natural desires or one that is treated like a commodity?
  • “Clean meat” (p 242) or factory meat?

Of course many people would choose pastured food with happy and healthy animals, but the truth is that the majority of the meat we eat is industrial meat. Sounds appetizing right?

Pollan does an excellent job of describing the pasture and grass farming process from his week on Polyface farm. Everything on the farm is interconnected from the grass, the animals, the slaughter, the market, and the meal.

We start with the grass because “the well-being of the farm depends more than anything else on the well-being of its grass” (p 187). This makes sense because grass, a primary producer, captures energy from the sun and converts it into a usable form for the rest of the farm. Grass is a key part that powers the entire food chain (p 188). Daily work on Polyface farm revolves around maintaining the health of its grass, which requires a wealth of knowledge about the grass itself and of the local environmental conditions. Intensive management and monitoring of grass health and growth is also required and animals are moved to fresh grass daily to give the grazed grass a chance to recover. The best thing about Polyface farm is that when the pasture (grass) is healthy, the animals are also happy and healthy because they live off of the “salad bar” (p 186) of grass instead of corn and a mixture of antibiotics and vitamins that is designed by the “current state of knowledge that animal science permits” (p 196).

Moving on to the animals, literally. Every animal on the farm is portable and is moved frequently if not daily. The success of the farm depends first on the grass, but second on the mobility of its animals. There is movable electric fencing for the cows, a portable veal calf barn, a portable chicken coop for laying hens, and even a portable shade mobile to protect the animals from the intense afternoon sun (p 206). This requires intensive work because the farm is an “ecological system”(p 213) where everything is connected; therefore you cannot move one thing without changing everything else. As a result the animals on Polyface farm are happy and healthy compared to the industrial food animals. They live outside on the grass, feeding on their naturally evolved diets and experiencing their “innate distinctive desires” (p 215). These animals are treated like animals and can naturally work together to keep the farm healthy.

Even slaughtering the chickens is done on the farm and their discarded parts are used as compost to fuel the grass in the following years. The other animals would also be slaughtered on the farm is regulations permitted. Polyface believes is slaughtering their own animals for “economical, ecological, political, ethical, and even spiritual” (p 227) reasons. We are exposed to the chicken slaughtering process in great detail, until the chickens change “from looking like dead animals to looking like food” (p 233). People often do not consider this process because they are disconnected from it to the point that a dead chicken in the grocery store looks like food instead of what it really is. Maybe if more of this process was done on smaller scale farms instead of behind closed factory doors more people would be more connected to their food. They may even care about the welfare of the animals they are eating.

Polyface farm sells to a small, but sustainable market of personal relationships and a small number of stores. Some people travel large distances in order to buy meat from Polyface because it is fresh and “clean meat” (p 242), from “happy animals” (p 242), and they can trust the farmer more than conventional stores. They have put a lot of time and effort into where they buy their food unlike many people. I agree that it is odd that most people put more thought into what they wear that day, or what house they will buy than where their food and nourishment comes from. Better yet, how their food was treated before it became food. I have done a lot of research into animal welfare, animal testing, pesticide use, and sustainable practices and it has changed what I eat and even what I wear in many ways. I wont drink many teas for the pesticides, use makeup products for animal testing, and barely eat meat because of the industrial food process and its effects on the animals and the environment.

Pollan finishes his week with a final meal on the farm. Polyface farm believes in the welfare and health of its animals and the environment and this belief results in better tasting and more nutritious food. “It only makes evolutionary sense that pastured meats, the nutritional profile of which closely resembles that of wild game, would be better for us” (p 267) than industrial meats whose diet revolves around corn.

I found the life of a grass farmer intriguing and laughed at Pollan’s frequent mention of intense work without any caffeine or alcohol. After learning the many benefits of pasture farming for the environments, I wondered why anyone would decide to eat an industrial cow over a pastured one? Simple, people do not know or understand the difference.

Not just your typical weed

Pollan, M. 2001. The Botany of Desire. Random House. p. 113-179

Pollan provided an interesting and humorous account on the history and evolution of marijuana and how it has been altered by human interaction and desire. The human desire discussed in this chapter is intoxication. Both human and animals use psychoactive plants to achieve this desire, but how? The truth is, these plants are toxic, “[t]here it is, right in the middle of the word intoxication, hidden in plain sight: toxic” (P 114).

So if these plants are toxic to our bodies, how have we learned about their effects in the first place? Furthermore, how have we learned to use and cultivate them over time? Pollan suggests that humans are expert observers, allowing them to learn from the actions and mistakes of other animals (P 116). Humans are not alone in the desire for intoxication and we use this to our advantage. For example, “cattle will develop a taste for locoweed that can prove fatal; big horned sheep will grind their teeth to useless nubs scrapping hallucinogenic lichen off of ledge rock” (P 116). People are also highly influenced by the decisions and actions of other people. Personally, I can’t imagine seeing an animal tripping out after eating a psychoactive plant and thinking, “I want to try that”, but I would more likely try something after someone had suggested it.

I found it very interesting to learn the roles that psychoactive plants have played in human history. Witched used these plants in their spells, potions and for their special broomsticks (P 119). I have gained a whole new perspective on the phrase “I am going to hop on my broomstick and fly”, commonly said in my house. Shamans and other sacred and religious figures also use psychoactive plants in ceremonies, for medicinal purposes, and to connect with the gods or the other realm.

One of the best parts of this chapter is Pollan’s funny story about trying to grow marijuana, his “jolly green giants” (P 122), in his garden in the 80’s. I found his story funny and captivating because Pollan shares his every thought and feeling with us. You cannot help but feel bad for him when he faces the police chief, but also cannot help but laugh at his reactions. Growing marijuana was illegal in the United States in the 80’s and was only legally grown in Mexico. Since that time, Peoples view and use of the plant have changed. Marijuana is grown throughout the United States and the recreational use of marijuana has is legal now in some states (e.g. Washington and Colorado). Recreational use of marijuana may also be decriminalized throughout Canada, depending on the Prime Minister’s final decision. Marijuana is still used for medicinal purposes, but it is now used recreationally throughout the world.

Of course we couldn’t talk about marijuana and not talk about how humans have cultivated and changed it over time. New strains of marijuana are constantly being produced for differing effects. Overall, marijuana has been changed to produce more THC (the active psychoactive ingredient). It can be said that marijuana is vastly more potent in today’s society than when Pollan was growing in his backyard in the 80’s.

This was one of my favorite chapters in Pollan’s book because it was humorous and captivating. The history of marijuana and how its use has changed over time was very interesting. Pollan was able to keep me interested by revealing his personal experiences with the plant, many of which I can relate to.

In conclusion, I want to talk briefly on the topic of intoxication and addiction. The feeling of being intoxicated (whether it be from drugs or alcohol) tricks your brain into feeling good. Once you’ve had a taste of this good feeling, you can become physically and mentally addicted. Addiction is a problem that many people suffer with in the world. Addiction can take over a person’s life, harming that person and everyone else around them. Eventually addiction can take your life. Although I fully understand the desire of intoxication and feeling good, I have observed the effects of addiction first hand in many people in my life. Please be careful about your own personal desires because addiction is not something I would wish on anyone.

Plants are protective mothers too!

Hanson, T. 2015. The Triumph of Seeds. New York (NY): Basic Books. p. 128-160.

I don’t know about you, but I wouldn’t want to come between a mother and her child. There are many stories about hikers coming across giant grizzly bears without happy endings. I never thought about how a plant can protect its offspring in the same way. More specifically, I never considered the protection provided to the pepper plant and coffee plant growing my house.

Like most people, I enjoy adding a little extra spice to my food and probably could not survive without a cup of coffee in the morning. There is an inside joke with my lab mates that I live for drinking coffee and have adapted to have a cup permanently attached to my hand (early morning field days can be rough). Who knew that the things I love most about these plants (e.g. spice and caffeine) were actually evolved to protect them? I love these plants so much that I even decided to grow them!

Pepper plants!
Coffee plant

Spices (including pepper) have fueled greed and change within the world, leading to exploration and the European colonies many of us occupy today. “For centuries the lust for spices shaped history” (p. 134). The economics behind spices took over the world and over 2000 cultivars have been developed from the Capsicum chili pepper (p 133). I know that the world’s economy is driven by food and the control of resources, but I had never thought about what causes my food to taste the way it does.

Chilli peppers are spicy because that’s how they protect their young. Spiciness has evolved through a coevolutionary relationship and “’it all comes down to seed production’” (p 136). Capsaicin is an alkaloid that gives the pepper its spicy flavor. This alkaloid also protects the plants from fungal pathogens and can alter a bird’s digestive system, aiding in dispersal and survival. It also acts as a deterrent for herbivores.

When eaten by mammals, capsaicin tricks your brain into thinking your mouth is on fire! Who would enjoy that? As it turns out, many people enjoy the burning sensation caused by chili peppers, myself included.

The coffee bean is protected in a similar way. I really enjoyed reading about the coffee plants history and how the effects of caffeine have changes the world. Learning about all the famous historians that gathered in coffee houses was fascinating. Voltaire drank 50 cups of coffee a day (p 152)! As I enjoy my daily cup of coffee (or 5), I never questioned why coffee had caffeine in the fist place.

Coffee is a smart plant and has equipped its seed with a good defense system. Caffeine acts as a natural insecticide to protect the seed and growing plant. It also leaches out of the seed to prevent the germination of all other plants around the seed, effectively killing off the competition. The coffee seed is well defended to survive to the next generation.

Caffeine also provides the plant with an addictive agent for pollinators. As it turns out, bees are just as addicted to caffeine as I am! There is small a concentration of caffeine in flower nectar to give the bees a taste, but not a lethal dose. This is really cool. Just as popular coffee chains like Starbucks and Tim Horton’s have discovered, the best way to increase your fitness (make money) is to have a line up of caffeine-addicted bees (or students) at your door.

It’s truly fascinating how a plant protects its seeds, just as a lioness or mother grizzly protects their cubs. I am glad that the human population has been able to take advantage of these protections to change the world. I enjoy my coffee far too much to imagine a world without it.

Do you know what you’re eating?

Pollan M. 2002. The Botany of Desire. Random House. Toronto, Canada. 183-238 p.

Cover photo from:

I love potatoes. Whether they are mashed potatoes, baked potatoes, potato chips, potato salad, or potato fries. GMO potatoes on the other hand? Not so much.

I thoroughly enjoyed reading chapter 4 of Micheal Pollan’s “The Botany of Desire”. This chapter focuses on a humans desire to control the world through the history of the potato. I like this chapter because Pollan raises a lot of questions about genetically modified (GM) potatoes and GM crops in general. GM crops have allowed us to take control over the genetics of other organisms, an ability that was once the job of natural selection. We have officially changed the course of the natural world through agriculture because “for the first time the genome itself is being domesticated” (p 197). A lot of questions have been raised about GM crops with very little answers. What if these GM crops really do harm the human population?

Pollan begins the chapter by talking about his own experiment planting Monsanto’s NewLeaf GM potatoes in his garden. This is where his questions and skepticisms about GM crops first come to light. He even states, “ I wasn’t sure I really wanted the NewLeaf potatoes I’d be digging at the end of the season” (p 187). Pollan was planting the NewLeafs because he was curious. It is very important to ask questions about what you eat. Pollan’s curiosity has led him on a journey to understand the history of potatoes and GM crops, as well as the technologies and politics surrounding them. His curiosity and question are what enticed me to read on.

I find it surprising that “fifty million acres of American farmland” (p 188) has been planted with GM crops and most people do not know. Many people never question the food they eat and Monsanto is not required to label their GM crops, which they don’t for obvious reasons. Would you choose to eat a GM potato over an organically grown one? Probably not.

Pollan’s curiosity takes him to Monsanto’s headquarters to talk to Dave Starck, one of Monsanto’s senior potato people (my goodness, what a title to have). Here, he learns more about their operations and the technology behind GM crops. Pollan discovers a sticking statistic that gene transfer only takes place 10-90% of the time to produce GM crops (P 209). Furthermore, Pollan unveils the uncertainty of the whole process because “this technology is at the same time both astoundingly sophisticated and yet still a shot in the genetic dark” (p 208). According to their staff, even Monsanto has no idea how safe their crops are or what effect they are having on the environment (p 209).

It was very interesting to see how farmers view GM crops. Pollan introduces us the point of view of both an organic farmer and a chemical farmer. As you can probably guess, these opposing agricultural practices also have opposing view about GM crops. Organic farmers do not believe in using insecticides and herbicides to begin with so why would they use a GM crop with insecticides in its genes? One organic farmer says, “if there is a source of evil in agriculture, its name is Monsanto” (p 221). Chemical farmer have a completely opposite view. Due to the extensive amounts of poisons (insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides) they spay on their crops, chemical farmers view Monsanto’s NewLeaf potatoes as a blessing. They do not have to spray as many chemicals on their crops, which allows them to save money. These farmers may have a point. If Monsanto’s NewLeaf potatoes can reduce the amount of poisonous chemicals sprayed on the fields, then this will also reduce the amount of poison entering the environment. Chemical leaching is a problem that has it’s own drastic consequences.

The most disturbing part about Pollans book was learning that Monsanto’s NewLeaf potatoes are not technically considered food. WHAT? I knew that McDonald’s uses this potato, but how can you sit there and enjoy your golden fries when they aren’t even food? These potatoes are a pesticide. This has officially turned me off from eating them. Apparently this has also changed Pollan’s mind about his NewLeaf potatoes because he did not eat the ones he grew.

What surprises me most is many people do not know about GM crops at all. There is a lot of information available for you to make educated decision for yourself. I believe that there are still to many unanswered questions to believe that these plants are safe. Monsanto, on the other hand, believes that there are too many unanswered questions to believe the GM crops are unsafe.

Has our desire to control the world around us sent us on a slippery slope of no return? I hope not.

The industrial eater: a walking stalk of processed corn.

Pollan, M.  2006.  The Ominivore’s Dilemma. Penguin Group, United States of America. Pg 15-119.

cover image from:

You are what you eat. Based on Pollan’s book the “Omnivores Dilemma”, this means we are corn, more specifically processed corn. We begin reading this book with a look at the supermarket. You can walk into any supermarket and see so much food, so much diversity in the store. Pollan reminds us that naturalists regard diversity as a measure of ecosystem health. I do not think that is true in this case because a supermarket is a measure of agriculture, which has caused the destruction of natural ecosystems around the world. As you look around the store a daily question comes to mind: What should I eat? Pollan changes this question to “What am I eating?” (p. 17). It’s scary that many people (myself included) do not know what is in the food we eat because we eat so much processed food. The truth is, the food we eat is derived from corn. Corn is in everything from the food we eat to what feeds our food and what fuels food production. This plant has colonized the world with the help of people through agriculture. Pollan takes us through the history of corn and how it has changed the world.

Pollan starts with the farmers. We are introduced to the life of a farmer named George Naylor. It is interesting to get a look into the life of the people that feed the world by growing corn. It is sad that these farmers support and feed strangers, but cannot afford to feed themselves (p 34). They are going broke by growing so much corn, but still measure their success by how much they can produce. This shows the consequences that a lack of knowledge can have on the lives of people. It is also interesting to hear Naylor’s opinion on GMO crops (p. 36). He does not trust tampering with billions of years of evolution. Maybe we should trust his gut feeling because he has spent his whole life growing corn. I would hate to see a lack of knowledge for GMO crops to have serious and irreversible consequences on the human population.

Corn has slowly taken over the world by displacing other species. This is done by clearing natural landscapes for agriculture and by replacing the usefulness of other species on the farm. This could not be done without the help of people. People clear the landscape and plant the corn. People have helped further by supplementing corn with synthetic nitrogen fertilizer. The invention of synthetic fertilizer has allowed the earth to support the enormous human population without limitations from the natural environment. Synthetic nitrogen fertilizer has changed the world’s biology because we are no longer relying on the environment to get food. We now convert petroleum and fossil fuels into food and provided the world with a surplus of nitrogen. This method of feeding the world is economically cheap, but environmentally costly. It’s sad how the world works

Pollan moves on from farming by taking us on the journey that number 2 field corn takes before it enters our stomach as either meat or processed food. I did not know that there were different varieties of corn for different uses, but it only makes sense. Instead of following the path of corn we follow one steer, #534, from the farm he was born. I can relate to the young steer at this stage because I have held a newborn calf on a range here in Kamloops (Figure 1). It is sad to hear that beyond this point, #534’s (or Arthur’s) live is devalued to feed the growing human population. You will never question a vegetarian’s choice after reading this chapter. The steer, #534, will live its life in its own waste, being forcefully fed corn, drugs, supplements, and antibiotics. Then, to top it off its life is cut short to be serves to us on a plate. I agree with Pollan, “eating industrial meat tales almost a heroic act of not knowing or, now, forgetting” (p. 84).

Figure 1. A newborn steer named Arthur. Born on a local ranch.

Pollan then takes us through the processing plant where corn becomes unrecognizable to become many of the compounds in our food. By the end of the process, “[t]here’s no corn left” (p. 90). It is funny how we strip all of the goodness out of corn then supplement the lost nutrients because our food “has less to do with nutrition or taste than with economics” (p. 93).

The human population has learned to eat processed, industrial foods and at the same time is ingesting more calories at higher densities. This problem has lead to today’s world epidemic, which is obesity. Obesity is a problem faced all around the world. Some people are starving while others are ingesting an access of calories.

I enjoyed reading Pollan’s book. He clearly put a lot of research into investigating the history of corn. I can say after reading this book, however, that I am no longer hungry.


Agriculture: a world conqueror

Diamond J. 1999. Guns, germs, and steel. New York (NY): W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. p. 85-113, 131-156.

It’s a sad truth that human society is based on a history of conflict between agriculture and those who refuse to abandon their hunter-gatherer lifestyle. Diamond exposes this truth by introducing us to two characters by the names of Fred Hirschy and Levi. Fred Hirschy, was an elderly farmer who developed one of the first farms when his boat arrived from Switzerland. Levi, on the other hand, was a farmhand on Hirschy’s farm, who was a member of the Blackfoot Indian tribe. Levi gives us the Indian’s perspective on the white mans conquest of the new world when he exclaims “[d]amn you Hirschy, and damn the ship that brought you from Switzerland!” (p. 85). Hirschy, and other immigrant farmers have disrupted and displaced Levi’s entire way of life. Agriculture has won the competition against hunter-gathering and “[a]t current rates of change, within the next decade the few remaining bands of hunter gatherers will abandon their ways, disintegrate, or die out, thereby ending our millions of years of commitment to the hunter-gatherer lifestyle” (p. 86). That’s a sad truth isn’t it?

Diamond goes on to explain how the domestication of plants and animals has led us to the world we know today. This was done by allowing a denser human population, through the production of food, textiles, and transport, but also by displacing those who live a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. Agriculture has spread throughout the world, but it is interesting to see how plant domestication has evolved independently in many places throughout the world and at vastly different times before it spread to displace the hunter-gatherer lifestyle.

Diamond reminds us again “ we must consider food production and hunter-gathering as alternative strategies competing against each other” (p. 109). I find it most interesting when he refers to food production as a catalyst in a feedback loop leading to a denser human population. More food is able to support more people, who in turn are able to plant more food. The only places where plant domestication has not displaced hunter-gatherers are where the land cannot support mass food production. Other places, such as the Fertile Crescent, support mass food production and are the birthplaces of agriculture. I was pleased when Diamond finally explains the importance of the Fertile Crescent and what it is! He has mentioned it throughout the book, but has never take the time to explain what the Fertile Crescent is. It’s hard to believe that I know very little about such an important place for birth of agriculture and of human civilization (as I now understand).

As agriculture spreads throughout the world and the human population continues to grow, I understand that there is a need to accept this as the common method of feeding the population; however, I do not believe that this has to be at the cost of the hunter-gatherer lifestyle. Spend any time with a First Nations person who knows their environment and you will discover many treasures along with an intimate connection with the environment that agriculture could never provide. With the loss of the hunter-gathering lifestyle, are we also losing that intimate connection with our natural environment? I hope not.

Below are some photos of a traditional beach pit cook I participate in last summer (2015) at Pachena Bay in Bamfield, British Columbia. This way of life is truly wonderful.IMG_0006IMG_0009IMG_0008